Teacher Education Programs

People who want to take up teaching as their career, profession and passion should definitely read some information about the kind of teacher education programs available in the country. It will help them choose their areas of interest and pursue a course suited to their dreams and aspirations.

Almost all universities in the United States of America offer graduate and undergraduate programs in teacher education. All the colleges and universities have definite goals and objectives for teacher education, and focus on molding quality teachers. Schools have laid down principles and philosophies to guide them in training leaders in education and contribute a great deal to shaping the young generation.

The University of California, San Diego (UCSD), offers minors, majors, graduate and undergraduate programs in education studies. The UCSD Education Studies (EDS) also offers M Ed, credential programs and doctoral degrees to certified teachers who want to further their careers and add to their knowledge base and skill sets. Their special programs include MA Deaf Education and M Ed Credential programs in multiple subjects. More information on admission and curriculum can be found at

[http://www-tep.ucsd.edu/].

The Harvard Graduate School of Education wants their graduates to have an impact in the schools and indirectly in the society. Their graduate programs include the Teaching and Curriculum (TAC) program and the Mid-Career Math and Science (MCMS) program. Undergraduate Teacher Education Program (UTEP) at the school has trained students for more than 15 years for K-12 schools. They aim at getting aspiring teachers to certify for teaching in public schools in the United States.

Central Washington University has teacher education programs for teachers of all age groups. Undergraduate programs include minors in Bilingual Education, Reading and Second Language English teaching, and majors in Elementary Education, Early Childhood Education and Special Education. The Masters programs in the university comprises of Instructional Leadership, Special Education, Educational Administration and Reading Specialist.

Teacher Education provides detailed information on Teacher Education, Online Teacher Education, Teacher Education Philosophies, Teacher Education Programs and more. Teacher Education is affiliated with Online Special Education Courses.

Dual Language Education

In the midst of multiple international conflicts, an interwoven global economy and the shrinking nature of our techno-driven world, language learning can no longer be considered an elective subject, but should rather be a necessary core to modern education. Typically, we put language learning on hold through much of elementary school, but this is the time when children's minds are most adept for absorbing words and languages.

Schools throughout the country are realizing this need and implementing Dual Language Education.

From neighborhood schools to charters and magnets, these schools are providing their students with greater opportunity to academically compete with students abroad by diversifying their skill sets in areas of communication, problem-solving, critical thinking, and analysis. Some education leaders are even predicting that dual language education will be the future of American schools.

Dual Language Education vs. ESL/ESOL

Dual Language Education is often confused with ESL/ESOL programs. While there are similarities between the two, there are major differences in their agendas.

The Breakdown: Compare & Contrast

Dual Language Education   
- Schoolwide approach
- Goal: To provide ALL students with the skills (reading, writing, speaking and listening) necessary to become fluent in both languages
- Programs usually begin at a young age (kindergarten or 1st grade) and continue for at least five years
- Students automatically opt in by enrolling in the school
- Depending on the type of program, requirements are placed on instructional time in partner language
- Not available in every school

ESL/ESOL
- Select group of students
- Goal: To provide non-native English-speaking students with the proper skills (reading, writing, speaking, and listening) necessary for academic success
- Program entrance is on an individual basis and can begin at any grade for any length of period
- Students may opt in or may be chosen based on entrance exams/placement tests
- Program is supplemental to classroom curriculum
- Most public schools have ESL/ESOL

Variation in Dual Language Education
Within the last few years, there has been a steady increase in the number of dual language programs throughout the United States. Results vary depending on the type of program and structure implemented however overall results remain positive. Parents and educators have taken great interest in such programs because they feel they will provide students with multilevel thinking strategies, stronger linguistic skills, and greater communication skills to succeed in the interdependent world.

Dual language programs can be classified into four categories:

1. Two-way Immersion- This type of program requires an enrollment of both native English-speaking students and native speaking students of the partner language. Schools may choose to implement programs that are either full-immersion (50-50 model) or partial-immersion (90-10 model). Both immersion programs have been proven to have high success rates.

2. Heritage Language Programs- Participants of this language program are dominant in the English language but have parents, grandparents or other ancestors fluent in the partner language. This program addresses the needs of heritage language learners.

3. Foreign Language Immersion- Also known as one-way immersion, foreign language immersion involves students that are native English speakers in hopes to become fluent in the partner language. It is more in-depth than spending a portion of your day in Spanish class or French class.

4. Developmental Bilingual Programs- Enrollment in this type of program is specific to those who are native speakers of the partner language. Participants of this program will develop the necessary skills and strategies to not only succeed academically, but also be fully proficient and comfortable in both languages.

Currently, the vast majority of dual language programs in the U.S. are in English and Spanish however other languages with growing popularity include: Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean.

These variances in languages are a determined by a combination of factors including, but not limited to, school district demographics, community needs, and educator or student interest. Dual language programs are most commonly used in states such as Texas, New Mexico, California, and Hawaii however schools nationwide are looking into implementing this type of curriculum.

Success of Dual Language Education
Singapore's current national bilingual education policy is an excellent example of how successful these programs can be.

By government order, students in the Singaporean education system are required to learn two languages, English and one of the other three official main languages of the country (Mandarin, Malay or Tamil). This has allowed nearly the entire literate population of Singapore to be fully bilingual all while unifying all members of its nation without sacrifice to any heritage.

E.K. Garcia is a writer for TeachHUB.com-- a new, free online resource center specific to the needs of K-12 students and educators. This stand-alone resource center has made thousands of classroom-tested and teacher-approved strategies, tools and recommendations available in one convenient location. For more professional development opportunities and classroom resources relating to topics within K-12 education as well as other articles by E.K. Garcia, please visit http://www.TeachHUB.com

Education Schools Offer Teacher Training

For those considering a career in teaching, Education Schools can provide programs of study for earning degrees in general education, higher education, K-12 education, adult education, curriculum design, distance learning, education technology, ESL (English as a Second Language) and bilingual education, education leadership and administration, special education, teacher licensure, training and knowledge management, and many others.

Future teachers may opt to specialize in certain subjects, such as physical sciences; English, literature, composition, or creative writing; biological sciences; business education; American history, world history, or regional history; management and administration; and many others.

General Education programs satisfy practice and career goals for interdisciplinary subjects, with studies in humanities and social and behavioral sciences. Numerous two-year vocational, trade, and community college and four-year college and university general Education Schools provide programs that offer various diploma, certificate, and degree programs of study in general education.

Students in four-year Education Schools can obtain Associate of Arts (AA), Associate of Science (AS), Bachelor of Arts (BA), Bachelor of Science (BS), Master of Arts (MA), Master of Science (MS) degrees in education, as well as education doctorate (EdD, PhD) degrees and combined degrees.

Diplomas and certificates from Education Schools may satisfy requirements for pre-school, assistant, vocational, and continuing education teacher positions. BA and BS degrees in education are generally required of classroom teachers, however most classroom teachers today have MS degrees. PhD degrees, and sometimes MA degrees, will qualify professionals for higher education (college and university professorships) and corporate education program positions.

MS degrees in education develop advanced skills to improve teaching abilities. Specializations in master studies focus on encouraging educators to test their skills in classroom and school settings. Courses are designed to increase professional depth and effectiveness in traditional settings, corporate settings, and various educational programs. Those who have graduated from Education School with a Master's degree should feel prepared to meet many challenges in education, having studied learning theory, instructional and curriculum design, and research and instructional technology.

PhD programs present studies designed for experienced professional educators wishing to expand their skills as teachers, researchers, and consultants. They provide opportunities for education students to focus on personal areas of interest and to develop advanced skills in critical thinking, problem solving, and research that will facilitate professional growth and effectiveness in the classroom. PhD degrees allow for pursuit of positions as superintendents, education coordinators, special education directors, principals, professors, deans, and more.

If you would like to learn more about Education Schools and even Online Education Schools, you can find more in-depth information and resources on our website.

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERAL OVERVIEW and may or may not reflect specific practices, courses and/or services associated with ANY ONE particular school(s) that is or is not advertised on SchoolsGalore.com

Copyright 2006 - All Rights Reserved
Michael Bustamante, in association with Media Positive Communications, Inc. for SchoolsGalore.com

Notice to Publishers: Please feel free to use this article in your Ezine or on your Website; however, ALL links must remain intact and active.

Michael Bustamante is a staff writer for Media Positive Communications, Inc. in association with SchoolsGalore.com. Visit our Traditional School Directory and find Colleges, Universities, Vocational Schools, and Online Schools at SchoolsGalore.com, your educational resource to locate schools.

Cognitive-Academic Language Proficiency

Separating achievement and language as distinct psychological constructs allows us to contrast the learning situation of majority language (children in the U.S. who already know English) and minority language children in school. While majority language children have the single objective of mastering academic content (math, social studies, science, reading, etc.) in school, language minority children have two objectives they must meet to be academically successful.

Like majority language children, they must master academic content; but unlike children in the majority, they must also learn the language of instruction at school. Bilingual instruction allows these children and youth to keep up academically while they take the time needed to master English.

Also, in the course of developing children's knowledge of school subjects, bilingual education provides background knowledge that serves as a context for children to better understand the presentation of new academic subject matter in the second language and also helps them make inferences about the meaning of new words and grammatical structures they encounter in the new language.

An alternative to the BICS/CALP (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills/Cognitive-Academic Language Proficiency) distinction was introduced by Kellie Rolstad and Jeff MacSwan in an effort to avoid some of these pitfalls. They argued that once children have learned English sufficiently well to understand content through all-English instruction, they have developed second-language instructional competence (SLIC). Unlike CALP, SLIC does not apply to native-language development and does not ascribe any special status to the language of school.

Also, while CALP appears to equate cognitive and academic development, SLIC simply denotes the stage of second-language development in which the learner is able to understand instruction and perform grade-level school activities using the second language alone, in the local educational setting. Children who have not yet developed SLIC are not considered cognitively less developed; they simply have not yet learned enough of the second language to effectively learn through it.

The SLIC concept thus avoids the implication that a child is deficient and still allows us to stress the need for children to continue to receive interesting, cognitively challenging instruction that they can understand during the time needed to achieve second-language competence. There is little doubt that James Cummins's BICS/CALP theory has been a useful tool for practitioners in assessing where their students are in their linguistic development. At base, however, the construct remains a theory with little empirical evidence of its existence.

This does not invalidate the contribution; several other important theories have remained unproven while serving as important bases on which to build additional research. Nonetheless, while critics have applauded the original intent of the BICS/CALP distinction, they have argued that certain refinements are needed to avoid some unintended negative consequences. By distinguishing between academic achievement and language ability and between first- and second-language development in school-aged children, we might be better able to characterize the language situation of linguistic minorities and their achievement in school.

Bilingual Business Degree Instruction

The business industry is expanding to include more foreign business owners and customers. Running a business is complicated and earning an adequate education is extremely beneficial. Several colleges and universities offer training in business in student's first language of instruction.

Students with limited English speaking knowledge benefit the most from this type of education. The main focus is training non-English speaking students in traditional business practices. Business skills are learned through programs that provide business communication, accounting, operation management, and law. The increased need for programs to prepare students to work cross-culturally is giving individuals the opportunity to become business professionals. The two prominent options available to students is earning an associate's or bachelor's degree. Training is focused on teaching students to successfully work within a foreign market and the global economy. Students that want to work with foreign businesses can also complete a program where they receive training in a language outside of English.

The areas covered within an associate's degree present a general overview of business principles. Some possible courses within a degree program may include:

    Statistics
    Information Technology
    Financial Reporting
    Accounting

Students can expect to learn how to manage a business according to everyday operation. The skills obtained in critical thinking, communication, and computer technology prepare students to fully take on all job responsibilities. Education allows students to apply learned skills to further education or their personal business.

A bachelor's degree trains students to fully understand their role in the business environment. Deepening the understanding of marketing and management is focused on inside a degree program. Courses incorporated into a bachelor's degree program may include:

    Organizational Behavior
    Finance
    Mathematics
    Information Systems

The work completed helps students use gained knowledge to run a business. A management course teaches bilingual students to organize, operate, and manage all operations of a business. Programs focus on providing students with leadership, problem-solving, and strategy abilities that make overseeing a business and its employees more manageable. Other courses may teach students about the global market. Students learn about small business ventures and practices within an international business setting. This education prepares students to work with different people from all over the world. After completing a bachelor's degree students can enter the business world confident or continue education if desired.

Programs are dedicated to working directly with students through their primary language. Courses encourage students to develop their own personal operation methods based on industry norms. Students will learn about the laws and regulations that affect their business and understand the business requirements that they will use when working for or opening their own business.

Non-English speaking students should take full advantage of bilingual business degree opportunities. Finishing a program is highly beneficial and students will be able to work within the industry and establish a working business environment. Students can start learning about business practices by finding an accredited bilingual program that is appropriate for their needs. Fully accredited programs offer students a quality education that is approved by agencies like the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (http://www.aacsb.edu/).

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERIC OUTLINE and may or may not depict precise methods, courses and/or focuses related to ANY ONE specific school(s) that may or may not be advertised at PETAP.org.

Copyright 2010 - All rights reserved by PETAP.org.

Renata McGee is a staff writer for PETAP.org. Locate Bilingual Business Schools and Colleges as well as Online Bilingual Business Schools at PETAP.org, your Partners in Education and Tuition Assistance Programs.